125 Digestive Terms Defined

Scientific Name Definition
1  Pathogen=  a tiny microorganism including virus, protozoan, prion, bacterium and fungus that causes diseases to humans, plants and animals. Tetanus, diphtheria, syphilis, Hansen’s disease and typhoid fever are the pathogenic bacteria that cause infections to humans.
2 Abdominal pain =  a disturbance felt at any part of the abdomen. The pain could be the result of an irritation of the organs including the stomach, liver, colon, gallbladder, pancreas, small intestine, and spleen.
3 Acute Myocardiac Infarction= is also called cardiac arrest or heart attack. It happens when there's an interruption of the blood supply to the heart that causes numerous heart cells die. This is usually caused by blockage in the coronary artery with some rupture. The patient with acute myocardiac infarction may complain of shortness of breathing, chest pain, nausea, sweating, vomiting, anxiety and severe palpitations.
4 Ankylosing spondylitis=  a chronic inflammation of the axial skeleton which affects its  peripherals like the joints in the spine, sacroiliac joint in the pelvis and can cause eventual spinal fusion.  the result of complete flexibility of the spine ("bamboo spine"). Its signs and symptoms are chronic lower back pain and stiffness in the center part of the spine. 
5 Anorectal function tests=   an examination to diagnose constipation through abnormalities of the anus and rectum functions.
6 Anorexia= it the fading feelings of losing appetite. Anorexia in non-medical term is alternatively called anorexia nervosa. Appetite might be harmless but it indicates serious condition with significant risk including acute viral hepatitis, congestive heart failure which can by caused by obstruction of the liver and other inflammation bowel diseases.
7 Anti-transglutaminase antibodies are auto-antibodies that fight the body's own antibodies and may cause autoimmune diseases like Coeliac Disease, arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and diabetes.
8 Appendicitis =  a certain condition due to inflammation of the appendix. The swollen part begins at its cecum (the first part of the colon)that becomes closed. The inflammation that causes the blockage is due to the thick mucus within the appendix or a stool that enters the appendix from the cecum.
9 Arthritis=  an inflammation of the joints or joint disorders that affects one or more joints of the body. Patients suffering arthritis complains of joint pains most of the time. There are more than 100 forms of athritis but the most common one osteoarthritis which is caused by age or truama and infections of the joint.
10 Autoimmune diseases= refers to an abnormal or overactive immune response to substances and tissues of the body. The immune system mistakenly treats its own cells as pathogen then attacks it. It usually affects organs like kidneys and lungs.
11 Autoimmune hepatitis = refers to the condition in the liver which is commonly caused by a malfunctiong immune system that attacks the liver cells resulting to liver inflammation and can further lead to a serious liver disease called cirrhosis.
12 Balsalazide= one of the anti-inflammatory drugs that is used to cure inflammatory bowel disease like ulcerative colitis. Balsalazide is usually administered as a disodium salt.   known as Colazal in the US and Colaszide in the UK.
13 Biopsy=  a medical examination in which the cells and tissues of the body are removed to determine the presence of certain condition or disease.  a  done under the microscope by pathologists.
14 Bloating=  an abnomal swelling of the abdominal part particularly in the stomach.  associated with tight abdomen which causes severe abdominal pains. 
15 Blood Pressure=  the pressure of the blood, circulating on the walls of the blood vessels.  BP also is refers to the arterial pressure of the physiologic circulation. BP is expressed term systolic and diastolic presure like the normal BP 120/80 mm/Hg.
16 Bowel bypass syndrome  it it an intestinal bypass arthritis-dermatitis syndrome characterized by arthritis, skin lesions, and diarrhea due to inadequate absorption of nutrients from the food. 
17 Bowel cancer= the general term for cancer affecting the long muscular tube from the bottom of the stomach down to the mouth of anus.  commonly called colorectal cancer.
18 Budesonide a kind of steroid used primarily to treat respiratory ailments such as rhinitis, hay fever, and asthma. Because of its high first pass metabolism, it can also be used to treat inflammatory bowel disease particularly in the terminal ileum and right colon.
19 Candida albicans=  a fungal infection caused by Candida fungus (a genus of yeasts). It appears harmless but if it's in the wrong place it can cause severe diseases. It can cause infection to human and animals particularly those with immunodeficiency or immune deficiency patients.  
20 Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS)=  a medical condition or a group of disorder which is related to exessive weakening of the body. This condition last for six months with symptoms not because of physical exertion and cannot be relieved by rest nor medical treatment. 
21 Coloctomy (Surgical resection)=  a medical operation or a surgical resection made at any damage or infected part of the large intestine or colon.
22 Colonoscopy=  an endoscopic study which directly views the colon and the entire part through the use of the CCD camera or fiber optic camera inserted to the anus. Colonoscopy provides an ocular analysis for polyps and ulceration and reliable for operation or removal of the assumed lesions.  highly recommended by surgeons for patients who have ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease to avoid wounding the colon.
23 Colorectal cancer = is a cancer affecting the large intestine in the colon and rectum area or the end of the colon. There is no definite cause of colon cancer. It starts as a benign cyst or tumor which can develop into cancer.
24 Colorectal polyp  a polyp found in the lining of the colon or rectum. It may be benign or malignant. If left untreated, colorectal  polyps might develop into colorectal cancer.
25 Congestive heart failure (CHF)= refers to the insufficiency of the heart to provide blood flow that is needed to the body. Heart failure has a lot of symptoms such as difficulty in breathing, swelling of legs and intolerance of exercise.
26 Constipation=   one of the most common gastrointestinal problem of several people worldwide.  not a disease but people who suffer constipation have the difficulty moving the bowels. Sometimes they miss bowel movement three times a week and may be too painful.
27 Crohn’s disease =  is another kind of IBD that causes inflammation or infection in the part around the length of the small and large intestine or in the drainage of the rectum (between colon and anal canal). 
28 Cryptitis inflammation of the intestinal glands found in the lining of the small intestine and colon. It can be present in inflammatory bowel disease, infectious colitis, and other related intestinal problems.
29 Cutaneous edema = pitting edema is is the most common edema resulting from water retention of the body which can be a caused by physiological condition, pregnancy or it can be the result of heart failure, varicose veins, insect bites, dermatitis and thrombophlebitis.
30 Cystitis= the term often used for an infection of the bladder. The infection can be felt as an irritation of the lower urinary structure which can cause burning sensation and frequent urination period. In most cases, cystitis infection is caused by intestinal bacteria.
31 Cytomegalovirus colitis (CMV colitis)= another inflammation of the colon which can be diagnosed thru serology, colonscopy, biopsy and CMV antigen test. It can be treated by antiretrovirals but in secvere cases, this can be cured by colectomy.
32 Defecography= refers to an examination using x-ray of the anorectal area which evaluates the complete elimination of the stool, identifies anorectal abnormalities and the relaxation and contraction of the rectal muscles.
33 Dehydration= is a caused by losing much liquid or water in the body. It can be mild, moderate or severe depending on how much body fluid is lost in the body. It may the result from excessive sweating, frequent urination, fever, vomiting, diarrhea or lacking enough water intake.
34 Diverticulitis=  an infection and inflammation (usually appears like a small bulging sacs) of the inner lining of the large intestine causing severe abdominal pain. It sometime comes with constipation and fever. 
35 Dropsy or hydropsy=  an abnormal elevation of the fluid under the skin that may result in swelling of the body. According to medical study, the interstitial fluid is determined by the balance of fluid hemeostasis and increased secretion of fluid into the intertitium. Inability to remove this fluid may cause edema.
36 Dysbiosis= refers to the microbial imbalance in the body.  mostly found in the digestive tract of humans and sometimes in the skin but mostly in the mucous membrane like in the lungs, vagina, nose, sinuses, nails, eyes and ears. 
37 Eclampsia=  a tonic-clonic seizures usually happens to pregnant women who have high blood presure and proteinuria.
38 Ectopic pregnancy= an abnormal pregnancy in which the fertilized ovum is implanted elsewhere instead of the uterine wall, like the fallopian tube, cervix, ovaries, and abdomen.
39 Endometriosis= occurs when the lining for the fertilized ovum (endometrium) does not develop inside the uterus but grows elswhere.
40 Enteroclysis= a method used to diagnose the condition of the small intestines through fluoroscipic X-ray. Images in the small intestines are taken as the constrast moves from the radiocontrast inserted through the nose to the duodenum.
41 Etrolizumab= it refers to the humanized monoclonal antibody that is originally designed for healing and medicating inflammatory bowel disease.
42 Fecal Incontinence refers to the involuntary excretion of waste due to the loss of bowel control. Older adults are prone to have fecal incontinence. It occurs when the internal and external anal sphincters becomes weak through prolonged muscle stretching or from injury as what may happen during childbirth.
43 Fecal occult blood test (FOBT= is a quick examination of the blood of the feces in order to identify the cause of the blood. FOBT’s main goal is to detect blood loss in the body’s gastrointestinal tract or anywhere in the mouth to the mouth of the anus.
44 Fiber= a substance that helps in digestion and prevents disease of the digestive tract. Composed of cellulose mostly found in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains.
45 Fistula=   a condition that creates an abnormal connection of the two passageway of the two thin layer protective tissues,  organs or vessels of the body which is normally not connected with each other. 
46 Food allergies =  another kind of mistake the body immune system makes when it wrongfully identifies protein from the food as harmful element to the body. When the immune system attacks the organism, it triggers allergic reaction.
47 Food poisoning =  an infection caused by foodthat contains food-borne organisms. It sometimes appears to have no symptoms but most of the time the patient feels mild intestinal discomfort or diarrhea. 
48 Gallbladder cancer=  a common cancer found in the gallbladder. The only remedy is to remove the gallbladder, the part of the liver which is affected and the lymph nodes.
49 Gallstones = these are stones like pigments found in the gall bladder or in the bile ducts. Its first common path is in the bile duct into the intestine wherein the bile mixes to the food then digested. It also moves into the cystic duct then into the gallbladder.
50 Gastational Hypertension (PIH)= refers to the condition with no exact cause accompanied by high blood presure and the presence of protien in the urine during pregnancy. It usually occurs to a first time mom or teenage moms carrying multiple babies or pregnant moms older than 40 years. Women who have high blood pressure or kidney problmes are prone to this condition during pregnancy.
51 Gastric cancer= a widespread killer cancer that develops at any part of the stomach and  reach the entire stomach to the other organs especially lungs, lymph nodes, esophagus and liver. 
52 Gastroenteritis= it refers to the stomach virus that causes acute inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract.  not similar to influenza but both have similar signs and symptoms like severe diarrhea and vomiting.
53 Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)= despites the name, it does not do anything with the heart but may feel like a heart disease. Heartburn is an irritation in the esophagus which is cause by the acid from the stomach or gastric acid.
54 Glycerin= another suppository drug that usually works by hyper stool softer action but can cause irritation to the colon.
55 Gonorrhoea and Chlamydia =  an infection of the same organisms that cause cystitis.  usually common to women who have very short urethra which makes them prone to intestinal bacteria. Aside from inflamed cervix, it usually manifests in vaginal bleeding after sexual intercourse.
56 HELLP syndrome= stands for Hemolytic anemia, Elevated Liver enzymes, and Low Platelet count.  a life threatining condition where the three dangerous medical conditions, hemolytic anemia, low platelet count and elevated liver enzymes are combined. 
57 Helminthic therapy= an immunotherapy to treat autoimmune diseases and disorders. This is done by careful  removal of helminth (parasitic worms like hookworms and whipworms) or the caviars of the helminth.  
58 Hematochezia =  a rectal bleeding characterized by the presence of blood flow in the anus sometimes in the form of blood clots mixed in the stool. Blood in the stool may look maroon, black and sticky, bright red or might not be visible with our bare eyes.
59 Hemorrhoids=  an enlargement of the vein in the walls of the anus and around rectum sometimes caused by untreated constipations and usually with sever diarrhea. 
60 Hernia= a kind of disorder where one part of a bodily organ protrudes into another part because of an opening or tear in the wall of the cavity, usually in the abdominal area.
61 High Blood Pressure=  a heart related medical condition associated with higher percentage of arterial blood presure. The normal blood presure is 120/80 mm (systolic)/Hg (diastolic) and hypertensive blood presure if it's anything above 140/90mm/Hg. 
62 Human flora= are microorganisms living in the digestive tracts especially in colon of both animals and human. These organisms usually functions to ferment the unused energy chemical reactions, prevent the growth of pathogenic or harmful bacteria, training the immune system and producing hormones to store fats, vitamin K and biotin for the host. 
63 Human gastrointestinal tract= the stomach and intestines, and sometimes includes the whole structures from the mouth down to anus.  commonly called digestive system in a broad sense since it  includes accessory organs for digestion. 
64 Hydrocortisone Acetate (USP)=  a contemporary natural steroid or corticosteroid used to cure inflammatory bowel disease.  a foam-like drug which is sprayed using a syringe applicator. Its main target  is the inflammation in the rectum and other inflamed areas in the colon.
65 Hypotension=  also called a low blood presure, the opposite of hypertension.  not a disease but instead  a physiologic  abnormality of the blood presure in the system of circulation. Hypotension is lower than 90/60 mm/Hg.
66 Immune system=  a natural bodily structure within the organism that protects the body against illness and diseases by identifying and fighting the detected pathogens and tumor cells inside the body.
67 Inflammation=  a part of auto-response of the body’s vascular tissues to detected harmful stimuli like damaged cells, irritations and pathogens. Without the inflammation, wounds and infections will never be healed.
68 Inflammatory Bowel Disease(IBD) = a group of ailments that causes inflammation in the small intestines and colon and can affect thousands of people everyday. The two major form of IBD are ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease.
69 Infliximab=  a monoclonal antibody fighting tumor necrosis factor alpha used to cure autoimmune diseases including psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease.
70 Interleukin 35 protein produced by the lymph cells that helps in controlling inflammation and immune suppression. It has been used for research in producing suppressive effects to treat inflammatory bowel diseases. 
71 Intestinal pseudo-obstruction=   a rare condition with the symptoms similar to bowel obstruction or blockage but upon examination no blockage is apparent; only nerve or a muscle problems caused by the movements of fluids, food or air in the intestine.
72 Intestinal villi= these are the numerous tongue-liked projections protruding in the gut of the wall inside the small intestine or duodenum. 
73 Intussusception= a condition where a tubular organ, like the bowel, slides into another part, thus obstructing it path often from swelling in the area of intussusception. 
74 Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) = one that causes abdominal pain and cramping but  highly believed to be abdominal contractions of the nerves in the intestinal muscles or spasm.
75 Ischemic colitis=  a medical disease characterized by inflammation and injury of the large intestine or colon caused by inadequate blood supply. In most cases, there is no specific cause identified but some instances,   caused by the reduced blood circulation or low blood pressure and blood clots. Elderly people are  prone to ischemic colitis infection.
76 Jaundice or icterus=   a yellowish coloring of the skin including the eyes. Jaundice of the skin is caused by hepatic failure. If a person has jaundice, it often means liver disease like hepatitis or liver cancer or cirrhosis. 
77 Kidney Stones= a lump that forms inside the kidney due to accumulation of urates, oxalates, and phosphates.
78 Lactose intolerance = the inability to digest sugar (lactose) found milk and other dairy products. Lactose intolerance can be developed after having infections in the small intestine due to viruses and bacteria or after bowel surgery.
79 Laxatives=  refers to drugs, food or compounds taken to soften stool and cure constipation. It can be taken orally or in suppository form. 
80 Leaky gut= this is caused by the disruption of the tight junctions between the epithelial cells of the digestive tract which causes hyperpermeability of the intestinal lining. Leaky gut may be associated with patients with inflammatory diseases, autoimmune dysfunctions, and type 1 diabetes.
81 Lethargy= a condition in which a person feels extremely exhausted resulting in drowsiness and too much inactivity.
82 Leukocytosis= it refers to the increase of white blood cell count beyond its normal range of in the blood.  very common to patients with conditions such as bacterial, fungal, viral, parasitic infection, hemorrhage, cancer and exposure to chemical medications like steroids.
83 Loose Bowel Movement = one of the irritable bowel syndromes or chronic diseases that cause a bowel movement wherer stool becomes loose and watery due to bacteria or virus.
84 Lubricants=   a greasy substance like mineral oils to enable the hard stool move in the intestine more easily. Lubricants are one of the alternative medicines for constipation to avoid complications from using laxatives. 
85 Lymphoma= a malignant kind of tumor that usually begins in a lymph node.
86 Melanosis=  a condition often felt after using laxatives in a long period of time.
87 Mesenteric Lymphadenitis= an inflammatory response, usually self-limited, affecting the mesenteric lymph nodes. It can sometimes be mistaken for appendicitis because they occur in the right lower quadrant of the abdominal area, and may exhibit the same symptoms.
88 Myocardium=  refers to the heart muscle tissue located at the walls and histologic foundation of the heart.
89 Nephropathy= a disease that damages the kidney resulting from prolonged usage of analgesics, aspirin, acetaminophen and other pain-relieving medicines.
90 Nephrotic syndrome=  not a particular disease but may be a sign of damage to the kidneys. It might be from a primary disaease that attacks the filtering system of the kindey which can cause leaking of the large amount of protein from the blood to the urine.
91 Obesity= extemely overweight, more than 20 percent greater weight to height ratio, and are often associated with serious illnesses like heart disease and diabetes. 
92 Olsalazine= described as an anti-inflammatory medicine used for treating inflammatory bowel diseases including ulcerative colitis.
93 Pancreatitis = an inflammation of the pancreas. The inflammation occurs when the digestive juices or enzymes inside the pancreas become inactive, damaging the tissues that compose them.
94 Paroxysmal Supraventricular Tachycardia (PSVT) =   a life threatening disease that leads to difficulty of breathing. The patient experiences rapid heart rate or palpitations, weakness, shortness of breath often felt in the throat, and chest pain.
95 Peristalsis=  the muscle contractions of the bowels in transporting food, waste materials, or any other elements passing through the intestine
96 Polyp=  an abnormal growth of a tissue which focuses the mucous membrane. It looks narrow, elongated with or without a stalk. Polyps usually grow anywhere in the body where mucous membrane exist including colon, stomach, urinary bladder, uterus nose and sinus. 
97 Preeclampsia= is a gestatitional hypertension with the blood presure higher than 160/110 and accompanied by other signs and symptoms. 
98 Prerenal azotemia=  is a common form of kidney failure most especially in hospitalized patients.  an abnormal high level of nitrogen waste in the blood that reduces blood flow to the kidney.
99 Primary immunodeficiency (PID) =   an inborn immune deficiency which patients are rarely infected from childhood onward.  also known as a congenital immunodeficiency or hereditary.
100 Probiotic= any substance that contains the good kind of live microorganism which maintains the natural balance in the digestive tract. Yogurt is an example of a probiotic food.
101 Proteinuria=  a condition which indicates the presence of the serum proteins in the urine. It looks foamy because of the bilirubin in the urine which may result into air bubbles in the urine or pneumaturia.
102 Pseudomembranous Colitis= one of the inflammatory diseases or infection of the colon caused by antibiotic-associated diarrhea. This condition may be recognized by foul smelling diarrhea togerther with fever and abdominal pain.  sometimes caused by bacterium Clostridium difficile which may sometimes develop life threatening complications like toxic megacolon.
103 Purine Analogue Immunosuppressive Drug =  refers to drug that can treat numerous autoimmune diseases including inflammatory bowel diseases (IBMs), hepatitis, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis and atopic dermatitis which can also prevent organ rejection or transplantation.
104 Pyostomatitis vegetans =  refers to an inflammation in the stomach, usually related to inflammatory bowel diseases such as Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis
105 Saccharomyces boulardii a kind of yeast that is found beneficial in maintaining the natural balance of intestinal flora and is considered a probiotic. It grows naturally in tropical areas and can be found in some fruits like lychee and mangosteen.
106 Saline laxatives=  a drug used to attract and retain water in the intestinal lumen to soften the stool. However, the prolonged use of saline laxatives can change the patient’s fluid and electrolyte balance.
107 Salmonella =  a bacterial infection which can be acquired thru eating including poultry, cattle, pigs, uncooked eggs and drinking unpasteurized milk which is very contiguous to salmonella bacteria that can also cause food poisoning and typhoid fever. 
108 Salpingitis= an inflammation of a tubular organ or body part such as the fallopian tube or eustachean tube due to bacterial, or viral infection.
109 Secondary Immunodeficiency (SID) =   an acquired immunodeficiency when a patient was infected by the diseases caused by infections, malnutrition and medical treatment including the deadly AIDS virus.
110 Sepsis = refers to a dangerous and life threatening medical conditions associated with infection caused by bacteria and other bad organisms into the blood. The signs and symptoms are higher heart rate (90 beats per minute) and the high or low body temperature (38 ˚C or very low 36 ˚C).
111 Septic = a patient diagnosed with blood poisoning or sepsis.
112 Sigmoidoscopy=   a kind of examination that targets the rectum and the lower colon. Just like in colonoscopy, the surgeon uses a flexible tube with light on its top to view the lower part of the colon and rectum.
113 Sitz bath=  an ordinary bath or soaking the body from the waist down, used to relieve discomfort and pain in the lower body part of the patients with hemorrhoids, anal fissures, episiotomy, uterine cramps, inflammatory bowel disease, rectal surgery and other infections.This is used for keeping the affected areas clean and gradually improving the blood flows of the affected areas.
114 Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth (SIBO)= also called bacterial overgrowth, is an abnormal overgrowth of bacteria in the small intestine. A person with bacterial overgrowth will develop symptoms like bloating, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea.
115 Sprue = a condition that can cause damages in the lining of the small intestine. The damage is the result of eating gluten from the food we eat (barley, oats, ryes, wheat, etc).  
116 Stimulants= refers to the over-the-counter drugs for treatment of constipation that causes rhythmic muscle contractions in the intestine which might increase the chance of a person to have cancer risks. 
117 Stomatitis =  an inflammation of the mouth including the cheeks, gums, lips, throat, tongue and even the roof of the mouth. The cause of this condition is related to mouth itself. It could be from poor mouth hygiene, iron and protein deficiency, mouth burns caused by hot foods and drinks, toxins, infections and allergic reactions. 
118 Stroke= also known as brain attack.  a condition when blood flow in the brain or part of the brain suddenly stops. When the flow of blood stops for a number of seconds, the brain cannot get blood and oxygen it needs causing brain cells to die and might result to permanent brain damage.
119 Sulfasalazine= an anti-inflammatory drug used to treat inflammatory bowel diseases like ulcerative colitis, Chrohn's disease and may also be used to relieve rheumatoid arthritis. 
120 Toxic megacolon= one of the dangerous complications of inflammatory bowel diseases like ulcerative colitis and Crohn's diseases in a form of acute colonic swelling or colon enlagement characterized by fully dilated megacolon or colon.  Sometimes  associated with bloating, fever and abdominal pain. 
121 Ulcer=  a slow-healing sore found in the area of the mucous membrane especially in the lining of the stomach or in the other part of the digestive tract. 
122 Ulcerative colitis = the kind of IBD that causes ulcer in the lower part of the large intestine that usually starts at the mouth of the anus or rectum. The symptoms maybe mild but patient with severe ulcerative colitis may not respond well to medication. It can only cured with complete removal of the affected area such as large intestine to avoid the risk of colon cancer.
123 Uric acid= uric acid is produced when the body breaks down purine nucleotides. 
124 Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) during pregnancy= also called a bladder infection, is an inflammation of the urinary tract of a women during pregnancy caused by bacteria. A pregnant woman may at risk of UTI starting its 6 to 24 weeks of bearing a child.  common to pregnant since the uterus grows, it increases wieght whcih block the urine passage from the bladder to out that causes the infection.
125 Vermiform Appendix =  a small, closed-ended narrow tube attached in the colon.  called vermiform appendix, so called because it looks like a worm appendage.

125 Digestive Terms Defined

 

125 Digestive Terms Defined pciture of digestive system